A Tale of Two Indias

Two stories from India this week – one you’ve undoubtedly heard all about, the other, probably not.

The reason for the ubiquity of one story and a de facto media blackout of the other will be pretty clear if you stick with me for a bit.

First, the story of the Indian diplomat Devyani Khobragade, who was arrested in New York on charges of visa fraud and making false statements about how much she paid her Indian housekeeper in the US.

All hell broke loose on that one, of course. Security barricades around the US Embassy in New Delhi were taken down, anti-US protests broke out, politicians ranted, and in the end, US Secretary of State John Kerry had to issue placatory comments to soothe a wannabe great power’s injured pride.

Next, a story that’s hardly being covered by Indian news organizations – you’ll have to comb social media sites to find anything substantial on this.

“Mukesh Ambani’s son allegedly kills 2 in a car accident. Media blacks out the news #WTFnews,” read the headline of a blog posted over the weekend.

In case you didn’t know it, Mukesh Ambani is India’s richest man, according to Forbes. The 56-year-old scion of one of India’s premier business families is also ranked 37 in the 2013 Forbes list of the world’s most powerful people.

If you’re Indian and your daddy is one of the world’s most powerful people, you can get away with quite a bit – that’s fairly well-known in the world’s largest democracy.

The junior Ambani story is still a bit murky and will probably stay that way for a while, since few Indian journalists are on the job because – get this – a substantial proportion of them work for news organizations in which Ambani owns substantial stakes.

I asked a seasoned Mumbai-based business journalist to estimate how much of the Indian media is owned by Mukesh Ambani or his family.

“You mean directly owned or owned via parent companies, or other companies owned by the family?” he asked.

“All of them,” I replied. “Break it down for me.”

“I really don’t know exactly,” was the honest reply.

Take just one case: A Feb. 2012 Business Today report dubbed Ambani “the go-to man for media moguls in distress” after his Reliance Industries (RIL) substantially funded Network 18, a mega media holding group whose list of mainstream news channels include CNBC-TV18, IBN 18 (which runs CNN-IBN), Viacom (which owns MTV India and other channels) and Web18.

These are just some of the English-language news brands, not the national and regional language media. And this is just one holding company in which Ambani has substantial stakes. We’re not talking about other news media where Reliance Industries accounts for substantial ad revenues, just so you get the picture…

Now to get back to junior – or Akash Ambani: There have been reports that the young man was driving a glitzy Aston Martin Rapide early Sunday, following a Saturday night party, when it crashed in Mumbai’s upscale Peddar Road area, injuring eight people. Some reports say two people were killed, but the Mumbai police now say there were no deaths.

Witness accounts say a “fully drunk” young man bearing a strong resemblance to Akash Ambani was in the driver’s street at the time of the accident. The young man was spotted getting into one of two tailing cars and fleeing the scene.

Nevertheless, the next day – and here comes the glorious moment – a 55-year-old driver employed by Reliance presented himself at a Mumbai police station and accepted responsibility for the accident.

Just so you know, there’s a rich history of rich, drunk Indians screeching around in daddy’s cars and killing impoverished souls who live on the streets of Indian cities.

In Sept. 2002, Bollywood superstar Salman Khan ran into a bakery in a Mumbai suburb and killed a man sleeping on the pavement outside the bakery.

More than a decade later, the case is still dragging through the courts. The charges have been lowered to culpable homicide not amounting to murder, the actor’s police guard who testified that Khan was drunk at the wheel was suspended from the police force, and the saga rolls on.

In short, if the average Indian believes the rich enjoy impunity, they’re probably right.

But this is hardly unique to India.

Now let’s examine a case that’s uniquely Indian.

‘In a hold-up with common criminals’

Enter Devyani Khobragade, Indian deputy consul in New York, who was arrested last week outside her daughter’s Manhattan school.

The incident sparked a level of outrage – and diplomatic pettiness – that took Washington, who’s no stranger to anti-US clamor, by surprise.

Apparently, the shock and horror is due to the way Khobragade was treated.

In an email published by several news sites, Khobragade described her ordeal at the hands of the NYPD: “I broke down many times as the indignities of repeated handcuffing, stripping and cavity searches, swabbing, in a hold-up with common criminals and drug addicts were all being imposed upon me despite my incessant assertions of [diplomatic] immunity,'' she wrote.

Note that “hold-up with common criminals”. Khobragade is not a commoner. She’s a diplomat. She’s educated, erudite, entitled – and her daddy, Uttam Khobragade, is a top bureaucrat who has been linked to the massive Adarsh Housing scam in Mumbai, a city that ranks among the world’s 10 most expensive cities for real estate.

Indian maids are made for exploitation

If you think anyone gives a hoot about Mme. Deputy Consul’s Indian maid who was heinously underpaid (try living in New York City on a $500 monthly salary), you can just fuggedaboutit.

The maid, Sangeeta Richard, fled her employer’s place in June and approached an immigration attorney in July. Very few details are available about Richard and her whereabouts, but the Indian government and press have made a fuss of the fact that her husband was granted a US visa.

Now here’s the fun twist: the Indian employer is accused of paying an illegal wage and falsifying documents in the US. In India, her maid has been charged with cheating and conspiracy. If Richard enters India, she will be arrested.

Take that exploited Indian domestic workers who dare approach any damn NGO or immigration attorney in the US for help.

I’m very familiar with these sorts of cases, I’ve covered the lot while I was based in New York. If I have to report on these hapless stories again, I will ask these women if their employers are rich, powerful Indians with diplomatic or un-diplomatic immunity. If they are, and the exploited Indian laborer wants to return home, I will tell her, “You can just fuggedaboutit, hon.”

Encounters, taplis and police heavy-handed techniques

A word about this heavy-handed treatment by the NYPD to which the Indian diplomat was subjected…

That had me howling with laughter.

I remember waiting for an interview at a local police station in Mumbai – this was around two decades ago.

In the course of about 45 minutes, every sod entering the station got a resounding whack on the head from every low-level police constable he passed.

In Bambiya – the distinctive language of Mumbai residents – a whack is called a tapli. You can get a good natured tapli, for instance, if you’re teasing a friend.

But these were not good natured taplis. Neither did they seem targeted. They were just meted out vigorously and regularly to every unlicensed hawker, layabout, ruffian – guilty or not guilty – who happened to pass a police constable.

I didn’t get a tapli of course – and that’s not because I’m female. If I had a male colleague with me, he would have been spared too. We don’t belong to the class of Indians who get arbitrarily whacked by the police. We are part of the educated, erudite, entitled, English-speaking elite. We get to yell at the cops who hail from the lower rungs of the social ladder. Taplis from the police are reserved for the poor and downtrodden.

Mind you, this scene unfolded in the reception area of the police station. I never saw what was going on behind the closed doors at the back of the room.

But my friend, journalist Suketu Mehta, did and you can read all about the police’s horrific torture techniques in his magnificent book, Maximum City.

India has a particular feature called the “encounter” or “police encounter” or “fake encounter”. Quite simply, these are cases of alleged criminals being killed in custody. Police or security forces then report the victims were killed in a gunfight. In one Indian state alone, the National Crime Records Bureau estimated that 1,224 people died in fake encounters between 1993 and 2008. India has 28 states plus a couple of union territories – now go do the math.

Dear Ms. Khobragade, when it comes to police heavy handedness, try death in custody, sister. It’s happening to your fellow – and lesser – countrymen, and you can’t top that.

So many Indians, so many responsibilities

Earlier this week, Indian Foreign Minister Salman Khurshid was in full fulmination mode when he vowed to “bring back the woman diplomat and restore her dignity – it is my responsibility.”

Ah, you’ve got responsibilities, Mr. Khurshid. In the course of my travels and reporting missions, I’ve seen your ministry doing a pretty crap job addressing some of them.

There are, as we speak, millions of Indian laborers slogging in a number of Gulf countries under conditions that should upset you almost as much as your deputy consul’s treatment in New York did this week.

I don’t have the countrywide figures, but the UN estimates that 600,000 migrant workers are tricked and trapped into forced labor across the Middle East.

Indian migrant workers in GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council) countries are exploited under the kafala – or sponsorship – system, which prevents them from leaving employers and often involves handing over their passports.

The situation is particularly dire for migrant domestic workers – mostly women like Richard – isolated in private homes.

So, let’s have some outrage directed at various emirs and princes over the suicides by hapless low-skilled workers trapped in conditions no citizens of any country should ever have to endure.

I’ve also seen some of your foreign ministry underlings struggle to keep up with their duties in chronically understaffed, under-funded Indian embassies across the world, Mr. Minister. This does not bode well for an emerging country with global ambitions.

In some African countries, I’ve seen little battalions of Chinese embassy officials efficiently handle the workload that one poor sod in the Indian embassy’s economic section is handling tout seul. These are countries where India and China have competing economic interests and New Delhi is on the losing track, so step on that, Mr. Khurshid.

While we’re at it, your responsibilities also include providing decent citizenship services to your nationals abroad.

I once saw a grown man faint in the citizen services section of your embassy in Paris, Mr. Khurshid. The scramble of desperate people trying to reach the window was somewhat similar to the scenes at refugee camps when the food aid arrives.

The folks in the crush at the Paris consulate were almost exclusively impoverished workers – two men I spoke to had arrived from Punjab and were earning a precarious living selling trinkets near the Eiffel Tower. I didn’t spot a single Indian national of Khobragade’s – much less junior Ambani’s – social class in that melee.

In fact, I can’t imagine anyone like Khobragade putting up with that sort of treatment.

For that matter, I can’t imagine Akash Ambani has ever had to sweat it out at any Indian embassy abroad.

And for some reason, I doubt he will ever sweat it out in any tapli-administering Indian police station.

But boy, if he runs into trouble with the police in New York or any other US city, he had better be meted the special treatment that special Indians deserve wherever they travel, wherever they roam far away from home.
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India owes an apology to the United States for its disreputable handling of this case. It should have immediately sanctioned this consular officer for soiling the good name of India by engaging in conspiracy to violate US laws. India should use diplomats who do not break laws, because it reflects badly on all of India. The Richards person should be welcomed back to India as a hero who stood up against exploitation and law-breaking. India needs to more carefully select its diplomats.
Slavery is illegal in the United States. Paying someone each day less than the price of one cup of Starbucks coffee is equivalent to slavery. This consular officer, who by the way spoke publicly on women's rights when at the same time holding a virtual slave, was treated like any other person. In the US, everyone is treated the same under these circumstances. For example, with Dominique Strauss Kahn was arrested, he was treated the same. In the US, law enforcement and the courts go out of their way to treat everyone equally. This is especially true for celebrities or others. In any case, this person did not have "diplomatic immunity". Diplomatic immunity for a consular officer does not allow then to violate fraud laws. India and the US will find a way out of the mess she created, but it it disturbing to see Indians rallying support for this abuser instead of having sympathy for the person being exploited.
The Aston Martin case cover up, Sajnay Dutt Being granted Parole YET Again, It just seems that the Laws dont apply to the rich.
(1) The maid got a salary + free food, place to stay, communication facilities and an empty house to look after during the day. The NY guys should have evaluated all this before analyzing (2) The visa declarations were made in India by the maid on her visa form - I did not see reports of her being prosecuted for mis-declaration; also this action was taken in India, so she should have been prosecuted in Delhi (3) Khobragade entered into 2 agreements; the US authorities should be prosecuting millions of corporations who enter into a public agreement and one private, for royalty payments, profit distributions, share ownership, etc. I guess this is something that they did not think of. (4) I guess that this was a very big crime, requiring all the prosecution witnesses to be brought over to the USA for 'protection' Khobragade should have done something more acceptable like killing off some people on the road, or something like that, since that may have attracted a punishment of only a year in a 5 star rehabilitation facility, since she could be having diplomatenza or maybe affluenza in addition.
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@Rajat.. your response is valid, but in the haste we always tend to forget the intent of the written article.. The perception you looking at this article could well be described as sentimental approach of an Indian. But, if carefully read, the article is simply portraying the state of Indian style of discrimination. For instance, why are we so much hurt only when some diplomat is arrested and searched for her crime-Yes its a crime, she is in a different country and has to abide by the laws of that country same way as you would expect some one else coming to India and abide by the Indian laws- why didn't we retaliate when our then President H'rble Abdul Kalam was searched at the US airport (Obama landed in Air force 1, on Indian land, walked out without any screening, went in his armored Limo, where as our president had to go through the usual screening at the US airport) Why didn't we react to the US and took action to show our Indian sentiments getting hurt at that time..? Its because-as the article also states- we are opportunist, not sentimental or patriotic. The patriotism is subject to our needs and requirements. In the midst of the elections for 2014, such stories are a definite solution to raise some eyebrows and divert people from the issues for the vote bank.. I would say, we do need to open our eyes and need to introspect. By accepting the truth and only then can we bring a change
The common thread in both the cases is that with attainment of economic status and power it is possible for an entity (a country in the first case and an individual in the second) to get an unfair advantage over others with a lesser economic status. The unfair advantage that powerful entities have over others seems to be perfectly acceptable within the country, but when it comes to dealing another nation, national pride takes precedence over other things.
i think ms alicia's comments are made with less than full understanding of the exact situation about indian and indians. if she is defending americans let her first ask the americans with their glorious and proud slavery record first set their attitudes staright. even today the american police and law enforcement officials treat blacks and hispanics regularly with 'tapils' and whch the american very proudly manifest to the whole world via movies- mockery of human rights and worse still profiting from it. you can sensationlise news for the wrong reasons- let ms alicia check what all other diplomatic workers from all countires in the world based in the americas or all over the so called developed nations are paying their domestic workers before singling out one country. lether visit some of the domestic help with american diplomats in india - the help is forbidden even to sit in front of their employers -human dignity - ithink this lady better read the english dictionary to understand the real meaning of the word
Hey Leela Jacinto, Your article makes sense. What you say is true. I accept it but did you not try to understand or did you not accord importance to what left India fuming?? We are not a nation of 1.2 billion ignorant fools. Firstly I like to assure you that I'm unbiased about social class, caste and religions in India and I don't believe them. Though my name might suggest I'm a Hindu but I confirm you that I'm not. I am just a staunch India and nothing more than that, an individual who commits himself only to the political ideology of nationalism. If Devyani Khobragade was allegedly paying her staff less that what she should pay then should should be prosecuted and if guilty suitable punishments must be meted out to her. But the very fact that she was in New York on the orders of the government of the SOVERIGN NATION OF INDIA, I criticize the way the American treated her. The American are very wrong in the way they treated a diplomat who was carrying out the responsibilities to represent the sovereign nation of India. 1) Americans claim she could be arrested because she enjoys limited immunity as because she is not a diplomat, rather she is a consular agent. Rebuttal- Vienna Convention on consular Relations Article 41- Consular officers shall not be liable to arrest or detention pending trial, except in the case of a GRAVE crime and pursuant to a decision by the competent judicial authority. I believe the fact that Grave crime is where a life is lost or a sexual harassment or physical torture has been perpetrated and now way it involves underpaying of a maid. 2) Americans claim that she indulged in exploitation of her maid. Rebuttal- All her expenses covered she was paid INR 30000 a month which in Indian Standards is a huge amount in comparison to the work she engaged in (Domestic workers earn around INR 7000-10000 a month in India). 3) US claims that Sangeeta Richards was to be paid $4500 a month. Rebuttal- The US alleges that Sangeeta Richands (the maid) was to be paid $4500 a month. I wonder in disbelief how the Americans gave her a visa? Leave aside Dr Devyani Khobragade who is a young diplomat representing India; His Excellency Pranab Mukherjee, the Honourable President of India draws a salary of $2300 a month and Dr Manmohan Singh, the Prime Minister of India draws $2400 a month from the exchequer. I sincerely believe that the Interviewing officer who gave Sangeeta Richards a visa should be sent back to school as his IQ must be lower than the normal room temperature. 2) Whether the underpaying of the maid (so alleged by the Americans) was to be decided by America? Rebuttal- Vienna Convention on consular Relations Article 47 -- (A) Members of the consular post shall, with respect to services rendered for the sending State, be exempt from any obligations in regard to work permits imposed by the laws and regulations of the receiving State concerning the employment of foreign labour. (B) Members of the private staff of consular officers and of consular employees shall, if they do not carry on any other gainful occupation in the receiving State, be exempt from the obligations referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article. So the fact is that Richards should be paid as per the Indian laws and not the American law. All her expenses were looked after by the Government of India. Her salary is decided taking the domestic markets in India in mind. (3) Was Richards really needed to be taken to the United States of America? Rebuttal- Richard was needed by Dr Khobragade for the representation of her consular duties because Richard was accustomed to Indian cuisines and culture which are to held up for visiting delegates and an integral part of the representational duties undertaken by diplomats/ consular agents. (4) US District Attorney evacuates Richards family Rebuttal- How can the US District Attorney evacuate Indian citizens from India who have criminal cases pending against them in the Indian Indian Legal system? The honorable Delhi High Court ordered an injunction and a non-bailable warrant against Sangeeta Richard and her family. How dare does an American Attorney fly them outside the territory of India when they were clearly instructed not to as diplomatic cables since July 2013 indicate. How dare does Preet Bharara make a mockery of the Indian Judicial system and the Rule of Law? I only pray that good sense prevail and both the countries sort it out in a dignified manner. It is high time America learns to adapt itself in the changing dynamics of the world. As we study in International relations "The world is unipolar but with multipolar tendencies". I firmly believe USA should tender an unconditional apology.
The issue is not what happens in india and its police stations..the issue is about diplomacy...if this happened to an American,there would have been howls of indignation and they would probably put sanctions on us or lobbed a couple of cruise missiles at a more hapless nation..The CIA agent murdered 2 people in Pakistan and because it lives on American largesse they could do ..well...I hate this word...diddly squat!..So let us expose the hypocrisy and move ahead.
Everyone in international media is getting it wrong, either they are mixing up reports or just going by hearsay... in the accident, allegedly involving Amabni son, no one was killed but cars were damaged, including the Austin Martin driven, allegedly by a Amabni family member. There was another accident on the same road around that date in which two people were killed. Local media did highlight but obviously wasn't overplayed for TRP as there were neither serious injuries nor deaths.
Hi Nice article! For the record,the main played her game in a very co-ordinated and well researched manner. She was also waiting to play the "Christian" card once victimized and see where this has led? She is now a US citizen !!! Infact,come to think of it, it is good riddance for India. About the diplomat,less said the better.This is what happens when incompetent bitches from the quota get into civil services.There was always a very good reason why the caste system was established in India,centuries ago.If people had stuck to that,the society would be better off.
As a canadian I was interestd in how media in countries other than the US and India were writing about the diplomat's arrest. I was very pleased to find your article. Though sadly I think the people who need to read it won't. Until there is a sea change in Indian thinking about women and social status I do not think the two countries are likely to understand one another. And while the US continues to expect priviledges it does not extend to others there will be enough legitimate animosity to carry the hypocritical comments about respecting women and all Indian citizens along. I think there is blame to go around. To the US state department for not being more aware of how the arrest would go down and how it would play in India. The Indian diplomatic community for not dealing with this before she was arrested. Another good piece I read on the BBC (though written by an American) was http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-25440252 As to the comments posted about diplomats from other countries and domestic helpers -- If Indian diplomats actually need servants then the Indian government will need to pay for them properly. Doing without servants is seen as totally normal in the US. You don't have servants if you can not afford to pay them properly. So there is not likely to be any sympathy for the idea that they are depriving poor nations of sending diplomats to New York. And in fact I truly doubt that there is any country not sending diplomats for this reason.
Nice Article. We should understand that in US even the richest persons drive their own cars. It is country that values efforts irrespective of nature of work. In India, we don't consider a domestic help as a normal human being. exploitation is everywhere. Contrast it with Warren Buffet, richest person in America drives his own car, eats food from normal restaurants. And if convicted in a crime he will be treated like any other criminal. But as bureaucrat and politicians are used to special treatments, they can't understand how they are treated like normal people when they travel to US.
Hats off! Thanks Leela for talking it out!
Thanks, Leela for talking out the truth!
Thanks, Leela for talking out the truth!
Good article.You have written so much, yet not covered the following major points: 1.Was it legal to deprive Devyani of the Diplomatic Immunity that every diplomat enjoys around the globe, and that too without prior notice, and to arrest her? 2.Can she move the UNO for violation of this fundamental right under the 1961 Vienna Convention?
While her "Income" in terms of salary might be low, most diplomats have allowances to cover the cost of living in which they are posted along with generous perks. When you take a diplomatic post you know exactly what you are getting into. Secondly, if diplomats had total immunity the incidents would be far more than what I list below. These include allegations of murder by a Colombian diplomat, two counts of indecent assault from South Africa — including an incident of drunken groping — and Moroccan embassy officials accused of rape and child abuse. In May 2010, South Korea and Ukraine were involved in a diplomatic row over whether or not the Ukrainian ambassador to Seoul caused a serious traffic incident while under the influence of alcohol. Every country, including the United States, has always chosen to abide by the Vienna Convention although every country states it wishes to maintain sovereignty and control within its territory. This is because the Vienna Convention is not a laundry list of items where we can pick and choose the rules and regulations we like. Rather the Vienna Convention on diplomatic immunity includes guidelines laid down for all countries to follow and abide by. Only if we follow these guidelines and respect the diplomatic privileges and immunities of foreign diplomats will those of our own diplomats abroad be protected. The question of immunity rests between the foreign ministries of the two countries and does not involve courts of law. One country confers diplomatic immunity by sending someone abroad on a diplomatic passport and the other accepts it by granting a diplomat a visa. In 1977, when a US diplomat killed an Australian government worker in a Canberra traffic accident the diplomat was sent home without trial. In 1997, a drunk Georgian diplomat killed a 16-year-old girl in New York with his reckless driving and the US requested a waiver from immunity for him. In this case the Georgian government withdrew his diplomatic immunity. The diplomat was sentenced for seven to 21 years but was transferred back to Georgia after serving three years. In 1984, a British constable Yvonne Fletcher was apparently shot dead by Libyan embassy staff in London in 1984. Diplomatic immunity shielded the staff though it led to Britain breaking off diplomatic relations with Libya. Fifteen years later, as part of a package designed to restore normal relations, Libya accepted “general responsibility” and paid compensation. As with many other countries, Pakistan has also used diplomatic immunity to protect its diplomats across the world. In 1975, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto withdrew an ambassador from a European country without allowing prosecution when heroin was discovered in his suitcase.
@rajat If she TRULY earns less than minimum wage (SERIOUSLY DOUBT IT, SINCE THAT WOULD BE ILLEGAL), then she can CLEAN HER OWN DAMN HOUSE LIKE OTHER MINIMUM WAGE WORKERS Seriously, I have no idea why you would think a hosuekeeper is a right rather than a privilege that most Americans can't afford.
She doesnt have any business to write nonsense. She should be one of those migrated indians now looking down upon the country of her parents. What is described in the blog is not peculiar to India alone. Thats true for every country. The rich and famous gets away with murder everywhere. Newyork cops beat up blacks in the open. So dont put the halo around you. Believe in responsible writing. Get some sense lady.
Just to let you know, Khobragade did NOT have diplomatic immunity. Only after she was arrested did the Indian Government move her to the permanent diplomatic side. She had committed a crime and was given the normal treatment for any criminal in USA, rich or poor. What the Indians did in India shows that India does not respect justice as your article shows and injustice will continue while the few rich and elite control the country.
If the diplomat can not afford a maid, then I fail to see why that should lead to lying on visa form. Millions of working couple (of every race) raise a family in USA and other western countries without any domestic help. They can not afford a domestic help and so instead of coming up with all sorts of excuses, they just get on with their lives. These Indian diplomats should follow their example, not come up with lame excuses for felony.
Maybe the US went a little overboard in this case. On the other hand I think India seriously needs to think about the policy and procedures they would like to have for attendants for their diplomats and the wage/allowances that need to be given out. And of course, thanks for shining the light on the Aston-Martin case. Those of us who watch the traditional media will never know the truth.
Nice article!! You have made a good point regarding how elite in India are always given favorable treatment by authorities. None of us, middle class Indians are happy with the way we are treated by state and its authorities. Having said that, I still disagree it is only the elites who are responding to this Indian diplomat arrest affair with hurt and disdain. First is the nature of the arrest, of a diplomat, which is undefendable. Second common sense should have prevailed before filing this case. The diplomat herself earns less than minimum wage prescribed as per US laws. How is supposed to pay her maid more than that ? Assuming, India can afford it, the countries that can't afford it, should they just stay away from establishing offices in developed world!! Unfortunately the UN office is also in US. So poor countries may not able to represent themselves there too !! One can argue that, if countries can't afford domestic helpers at US wage rates, their diplomats should be ready to work without domestic helpers. But it may just put diplomats with family, especially female diplomats with children at considerable disadvantage!! Keeping the above points in mind I believe the US laws of minimum wage must be applied judiciously. By the way, thanks for putting light on the aston-martin accident case in mumbai.

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